Hedging With Derivatives | An Advanced Stock Investment Strategy

This article is of little use to those investors who are expert derivative traders and know, how to use hedging for their portfolio against market risk. But, of utmost know to factor to the investors, who are away from the derivative segment and are likely to know about. Let’s read.


What is Hedging and Who is a Hedger

A strategic trading strategy in the derivative market, to protect the value of equity portfolio against price fluctuations is called hedging. When there is an uncertainty in the price movement of any stock, stock investors can hedge the price of a stock from a fall, by participating in the derivatives market. And, such investor is then called to be a Hedger.

Hedging is nothing, but securing the price of a stock by speculating market movement. In other words, it’s an advanced equity investment strategy, where the equity investments are protected in the market fall /fall in the price of a stock scenario. Hedging gives a sort of ‘peace of mind’ to the equity investors, by ensuring a more predictable outcome.

Hedging of a Stock doesn’t give more outcome, but it definitely gives a more predictable outcome.

What Are The Types Of The Risks Associated With Any Stock

While buying a stock every investor thinks and hopes that, it will move forward and there will be a hike in the stock price. But, nobody can make sure that the price hike is definite. There are certain risk factors, that may restrict the stock price, and push it down.

The stock price is always a function of many risk factors, which will decide its future. Some are specific to the particular stock and sector. And some are global. Market risk is considered as an external risk factor that will equally affect the entire industry. For example, currently the Diamond Industry, is facing such a type of Market Risk. Which is unavoidable by all the stocks of various companies that belong to this industry.

How To Hedge A Stock

Hedging is an art of ensuring the return of an equity investment apart from market risk. This is done by participating in the derivatives market, and execute exactly the opposite trade. That means, the trade which  opposite to the trade in equity segment. By doing so, one can ensure the return from either the equity /derivative market, as the two segments move in opposite directions. In this form, one can bypass the risk to those who are willing to bear it.

There are two types of derivative contracts, that help the investors to hedge their investments in the cash segment, that is equity. They are Futures and Options.

For example Mr. A holds 100 shares of a company XYZ. If the buy price is Rs. 10 per share, and the stock price is hovering around Rs 10 and Rs.12, for a month. Then Mr. A speculated the price movement towards negative direction. And, he decided to liquidate his holding predicting its future fall. But, his advisor and friend, Mr. B suggested him to hedge his holding  to ensure his future earnings at the cost of the premium to be paid to buy a contract in the derivatives segment. So, Mr. A postponed the idea of selling the shares at the current market price. And, decided to sell the stock at the expected Rs. 15 after 3 months.

Even though there are many contracts to hedge the stock value in derivative segment, the best one is the PUT Option, which he can utilize to sell his stock after 3 months and at the strike price.

Put Option gives the buyer to sell the stock  during a predetermined period and at the predetermined strike price, which is usually above the market price.

The cost of buying a Put Option increases with strike price. That means, higher the strike price, the higher the cost. So, it is always advisable to choose the strike price moderately to hedge the stock.  So, Mr. A chose to buy the 1 ATM Put of 100 shares with the 3 month expiration period.  He paid Rs. 100 towards premium and his strike price was Rs.11

As per his expectation the price of his stock fell to Rs.10. And, Mr.A exercised his option to Put his quantity of 100 shares at Rs. 11 each. The amount he received was Rs. 1100. So, the loss is only the amount that was paid towards commission while buying the stock. In India the Futures and Options, of all the listed stocks expire on the last Thursday of the contract month. If that Thursday is declared to be the holiday, the expiry day will be the preceding Wednesday.

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Happy Investing!

 

Value Stocks | Hidden Gems For Value Investing

Good Management and Coprporate Governance. Hopeful Sector. Upcoming Industry. Analysis Says – The Company Fundamentals are Strong. Excellent future prospects. Technicals are suggesting to buy. Yes. Definitely the stock falls in the ‘Value Stocks’ category.


The secret of many people to become millionaires! The success mantra of many Mutual Funds to out-perform! Value investing is nothing but chasing those hidden gems to own. Just invest and forget to hug your future fortune. That’s what ‘The Value Investing Is!

What Are ‘The Value Stocks’

All those stocks that tend to trade much below their intrinsic value can be considered as ‘Value Stocks‘. These stock’s current market price don’t match with either the fundamentals of the company or its earning levels. And, thus considered to be an undervalued stock by the ‘Value Investors’.

How To Spot A Value Stock

If the company is paying good dividend, earning levels are excellent and sales growth rate is OK, but the stock is available at low price. We can exactly say that the stock is a value stock.

Other characteristics would be, high dividend yield, low P/E (low price to earnings ratio) and low P/B (low price to book value)

Why To Invest In Value Stocks

As the value stocks /securities are trading at a lower price than how the company’s performance may otherwise indicate, there will be a breaking down point in the near or the far future of every value stock. Difficult to guess, but sure to be assessed. The target price will be at least its intrinsic value.

Investing in a value stock is an attempt to capitalize on market inefficiencies. By investing in a value stock, we can make sure that, we are going to encash the inefficiency of the market to recognize the stock’s underlaying value.

How To Invest In Value Stocks

Just spotting a stock with the required ratios is not enough to decide upon that the stock is undervalued and can invest without any further investigation. Of course, this would be the first step to develop a rough list of stocks – that may be our best choice of value picks. So, just the screen test and making a list of stocks that we expect to be undervalued is over.

Apart from this there are two more steps of analysis required to be done before investing. They are ‘Qualitative Analysis’ and ‘Quantitative Analysis’.

What Is Qualitative Analysis

The entire analysis of the company, side stepping the financial ratio analysis (quantitative analysis) is called the qualitative analysis. Here there are no financial ratios not their analysis. But, it involves analyzing the company in the vague light of distinctive practical matters, which directly or indirectly affect the company’s performance  and its stock value anyhow.

Factors like industry to which the company directly /indirectly related to, future scope of that industry, company management, corporate governance, company competitiveness with its competitors, government subsidies, quality of the goods produced, climatic conditions and finally the demand for its products /services etc, need to be analyzed in depth before deciding upon the stock to be a Value Stock. Unlike quantitative analysis, qualitative analysis needs more attention and is very time consuming.

Qualitative Analysis is best made by the investors, that is relevant to them. The companies they worked for, goods they sold once or well known with the products and their demand are best to be chosen for analysis.

It’s wise to buy companies, that you understand better

– Warren Buffet

What Is Quantitative Analysis

There is a myth among the common investors that ‘The Quantitative Analysis, is a little bit difficult ratio analysis performed by the expert analysts. But, the existed IT tools made it a crazy one minute analysis done by any common people. No financial expertise is required.

Once the ratio analysis is over, the next step is to analyze the impact of their values. All the investors with basic knowledge of how these financial ratios should be for the company’s out-performance in the near future, are said to be in good position in value stock picking.

Other Strategies To Invest In Value Stocks

Few value investors opt to invest in stocks of companies whose products or services have been in demand for a long time and are likely to be continued.

Innovation‘ – This sounds like a synonym of development. And of course the stepping stone of true development. But, this would be a great threat to certain companies and sometimes the whole industry too. History witnessed a few long-standing companies and industries victimized by new innovations. Their products /services became obsolete and the companies lost forever. Here, what we need is critical thinking skills. If there is a proof that, the company has been in the business for a longstanding period and has the ability to fast adapt the new changes and innovations, then we can be free to choose such businesses for further analysis. At this point it may be worthwhile to analyze management and the effectiveness of corporate governance to determine how the company reacts to new innovations and changing environments. Investment in such a business is considered to be always safe and  fruitful.

That’s all. Thank for reading this topic.

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